U.S. Army Cyber Command & Second Army Heritage
The history of the Second Army began in World War I as a fighting army. On 10 October 1918, Lieutenant General Robert L. Bullard, who had distinguished himself as an aggressive Corps commander, became the Second Army commander. Second Army was responsible for a portion of the St. Mihiel sector along the Lorraine front. Second Army was ordered to advance toward Metz early in November. Bullard subsequently launched rigorous attacks against the Germans on 10 November. The 7th, 28th, 33d and 92nd divisions, then on the Second Army front, began the attacks. Encountering stubborn resistance, Second Army made a considerable advance, recovering a total of approximately 25 square miles of French territory before the armistice terminated hostilities on 11 November. During its first month of combat operations, 102 soldiers serving under Second Army earned the Distinguished Service Cross. After the Armistice, Second Army occupied an area in Belgium and Luxembourg, remaining there until the end of March 1919, and was inactivated in France on 15 April 1919.
Second Army earned distinction as a training army during World War II. The U.S. Army reactivated Second Army in October 1933, with headquarters at Chicago, Illinois, as one of four field armies that would help mobilize forces in event of a national emergency. In December 1940, the headquarters moved to Memphis, Tennessee, and was designated a training army, which conducted training in 24 states. During World War II, Second Army trained 11 corps, 55 divisions, and 2,000 smaller units of all arms and services, composed of almost a million men, for employment in all theaters of operation.
Second Army continued its training role after the war. In June 1946, Second Army moved its headquarters to Baltimore, Maryland, as one of six Continental Armies under the Army Ground Forces. Second Army encompassed the seven states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, and also included the District of Columbia.
In June 1947, Second Army Headquarters moved to Fort George G. Meade, Maryland. On 1 January 1957, Second Army was redesignated Second United States Army, as one of the six Zone of Interior Armies of the United States. Second U. S. Army supported multi-purpose missions of command, operations, training and provisions of administrative and logistical services to ensure the continued operational readiness of its assigned combat and support units in the active Army, Army Reserves and National Guard.
At the height of the Cold War, Second U.S. Army helped mobilize forces for potential conflict. During the September 1961 Berlin Crisis, Second U.S. Army mobilized 39 National Guard and Army Reserve units in the seven state area and eight Army Reserve units from other Army areas. During the October 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, Second U.S. Army deployed 41 units, which comprised more than 5,700 military personnel.
Reorganizations within the U.S. Army led to Second U.S. Army being inactivated twice from 1966 to 1995. On January 1, 1966, First and Second U.S. Armies merged, resulting in the inactivation of Second U.S. Army. In 1983, Second U.S. Army reactivated at Fort Gillem, Georgia, and assumed responsibility for Reserve Component matters in seven states and two territories formerly belonging to First Army. In 1995, First Army left Fort Meade, Maryland, and reorganized at Fort Gillem, upon the inactivation of Second U.S. Army.
The establishment of U.S. Army Cyber Command earmarked the Army’s entry into the new operational domain of cyberspace and perpetuated the lineage and honors of Second U.S. Army. On 1 October 2010, the U.S. Army redesignated the inactive Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Second U.S. Army, as U.S. Army Cyber Command, with its headquarters at Fort Belvoir, Virginia.
The indomitable fighting spirit of Bullard’s WWI Second Army and the WWII Second Army helped create an Army that could stand up in the field to the best armies in the world in their time. Army Cyber Command is doing the same for today’s Army. Army Cyber Command plans, coordinates, integrates, synchronizes, directs, and conducts network operations and defense of all Army networks; when directed, conducts cyberspace operations in support of full spectrum operations to ensure U.S./Allied freedom of action in cyberspace, and to deny the same to our adversaries. Army Cyber Command is defending the Army in cyberspace and preparing the Army to optimize cyberspace so that America’s Army will always remain true to the Command’s motto, which translates as “Second to None.”