The Relationship of U. S. Army Cyber Command and Second Army
The Relationship between U.S. Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER) and Second Army has undergone several changes since the establishment of ARCYBER in 2010. From its establishment in October 2010 to March 2014, Army Cyber Command perpetuated the lineage and honors of the inactive Second United States Army, which traced its history to World War I. In March 2014, the Army activated a new unit designated Second Army that resulted in the Second Army's lineage and honors being withdrawn from Army Cyber Command and assigned to the newly activated unit. Although Army Cyber Command no longer retained the lineage and honors, the Commander of Army Cyber Command was designated as the Commander of Second Army. Second Army, with the U.S. Army Network Enterprise Technology Command (NETCOM) assigned to it, became a Direct Reporting Unit of the Chief Information Officer/G-6, Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA), to optimize the Army's force structure in support of Army Cyber Command's mission. After ARCYBER became an Army Service Component Command to U.S. Strategic Command in July 2016, the Army reassessed ARCYBER's command and control relationship with NETCOM and Second Army. In January 2017, to improve readiness and achieve unity of command, the Army discontinued Second Army, reassigned NETCOM to ARCYBER, and returned Second Army's lineage and honors to ARCYBER.
The history of the Second Army began as a fighting army on the battlefields of France in the waning days of World War I. Eager to maintain a hard-fought momentum to drive the Germans out of France, on 10 October 1918, General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing, Commander of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), selected Lieutenant General Robert L. Bullard to command the newly-activated Second Army, AEF. Bullard, a Spanish-American War veteran, earned Pershing's confidence and reputation as an aggressive commander after leading the 1st Infantry Division during the battle of Cantigny. At Cantigny, Bullard delivered the first American victory of the war. Bullard's orders for Second Army were to hold the line on a portion of the St. Mihiel sector along the Lorraine front. In November, General Pershing ordered Second Army to advance toward Metz. Bullard subsequently launched rigorous attacks against the Germans on 10 November. The 7th, 28th, 33d and 92d divisions, then on the Second Army front, began the attacks. Encountering stubborn resistance, Second Army made a considerable advance, recovering a total of approximately 25 square miles of French territory before the armistice terminated hostilities on 11 November. During its first month of combat operations, 102 soldiers serving under Second Army earned the Distinguished Service Cross. After the armistice, Second Army occupied an area in Belgium and Luxembourg, remaining there until the end of March 1919, and demobilized in France on 15 April 1919.
Second Army earned distinction as a training army during World War II, preparing nearly one million men to fight. The U.S. Army activated a new Second Army in October 1933, with headquarters at Chicago, Illinois, as one of four field armies that would help mobilize forces in event of a national emergency. In December 1940, the Army moved Second Army's headquarters to Memphis, Tennessee, and designated it as a training army, which conducted training in 24 states. In June 1944, the Army reconstituted the World War I Second Army, AEF, and consolidated it with the existing Second Army in order to perpetuate the lineage and honors of the World War I unit. During World War II, Second Army trained 11 corps, 55 divisions, and 2,000 smaller units of all arms and services, composed of almost a million men, for employment in all theaters of operation.
Second Army continued its training role after the war. In June 1946, Second Army moved its headquarters to Baltimore, Maryland, as one of six Continental Armies under the Army Ground Forces. Second Army encompassed the seven states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, and the District of Columbia.
In June 1947, Second Army Headquarters moved to Fort George G. Meade, Maryland. On 1 January 1957, the Army redesignated Second Army as Second United States Army, as one of the six Zone of Interior Armies of the United States. Second U. S. Army supported multi-purpose missions of command, operations, training and provisions of administrative and logistical services to ensure the continued operational readiness of its assigned combat and support units in the active Army, Army Reserves and National Guard.
At the height of the Cold War, Second U.S. Army helped mobilize forces for potential conflict. During the September 1961 Berlin Crisis, Second U.S. Army mobilized 39 National Guard and Army Reserve units in the seven state area and eight Army Reserve units from other Army areas. During the October 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, Second U.S. Army deployed 41 units, which comprised more than 5,700 military personnel.
Reorganizations within the U.S. Army led to Second U.S. Army being inactivated twice from 1966 to 1995. On 1 January 1966, First and Second U.S. Armies merged, resulting in the inactivation of Second U.S. Army. In July 1983, Second U.S. Army reactivated at Fort Gillem, Georgia, and assumed responsibility for Reserve Component matters in seven states and two territories formerly belonging to First Army. In July 1995, First Army left Fort Meade and reorganized at Fort Gillem, upon the inactivation of Second U.S. Army.
The establishment of U.S. Army Cyber Command earmarked the Army's entry into the new operational domain of cyberspace and perpetuated the lineage and honors of Second U.S. Army. The 1 October 2010, HQDA General Orders No. 2010-26 [See Enclosure A], which established Army Cyber Command, stated that it would "perpetuate the lineage and honors of the Second Army as specified by the United States Army Center of Military History." The Army Center of Military History agreed to use the naming convention established for geographic Army Service Component Commands (ASCCs), which would not have numbered Army designations; that is, the designation would be U.S. Army Cyber Command and not "Second Army"; only the lineage and honors of Second Army would be assigned to Army Cyber Command. General Orders No. 2010-26 redesignated the inactive Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Second U. S. Army, as U.S. Army Cyber Command, with its headquarters at Fort Belvoir, Virginia.
On 6 March 2014, HQDA General Orders No. 2014-02, activated a new unit designated Second Army as a Direct Reporting Unit of the Chief Information Officer/G-6, HQDA, with the Commander, U.S. Army Cyber Command as the Commander, Second Army [See Enclosure B]. The General Orders also withdrew the Second Army lineage and honors from Army Cyber Command and assigned them to the new unit. The Army assigned the U.S. Army Network Enterprise Technology Command (NETCOM), formerly a direct reporting unit of the Chief Information Officer/G-6, HQDA, which supported Army Cyber Command's mission, to Second Army in accordance with Title 10, United States Code, Section 162 (a) (2) to carry out the functions assigned to the Secretary of the Army in Titles 10, 40 and 44 United States Code. The resulting command and control arrangement, designating the Commander, U.S. Army Cyber Command, also as the Commander, Second Army, optimized the Army's force structure to better support Army Cyber Command's mission.
After Army Cyber Command became an Army Service Component Command to U.S. Strategic Command on 11 July 2016, the Army reassessed NETCOM's command and control relationship with ARCYBER and Second Army. On 18 January 2017, to improve army readiness and achieve unity of command, the Army discontinued Second Army, reassigned NETCOM to ARCYBER, and returned Second Army's lineage and honors to ARCYBER. [See Enclosure C].
Army Cyber Command is an operational-level Army force reporting directly to HQDA. The Commander, ARCYBER, exercises operational control over Army forces, as delegated by the Commander, U.S. Strategic Command or the Commander, U.S. Cyber Command. ARCYBER is the primary headquarters responsible for conducting cyberspace operations (offensive cyberspace operations, defensive cyberspace operations, and Department of Defense Information Network operations), as directed and authorized on behalf of the Commander, U.S. Strategic Command or the Commander, U.S. Cyber Command. ARCYBER organizes, trains, educates, mans, equips, funds, administers, deploys, and sustains Army cyber forces to conduct cyberspace operations.